Connectors use metal plating to protect against external factors such as contamination, diffusion of substrate metal, and contact wear.
There are two types of plating used in connectors:
1. The characteristics of using precious metal coating
To varying degrees, noble metal coatings (eg, gold, palladium, and their alloys) are inherently free from surface films. Interfacial metal contact is relatively simple for these coatings as it only requires movement of the companion of the contact surface upon mating. Usually this is easy to achieve. In order to maintain the stability of the contact interface impedance, the connector design requires attention to maintain the noble metal plating on the contact surface.
2. The characteristics of using ordinary metal coating
Common metal coatings, especially tin or tin alloys, appear to be naturally covered with an oxide film. The effect of tin contact plating is that this layer of oxide is easily destroyed during mating, so that metal contacts are easily established. The requirement of electrical connector design is to ensure that the oxide film is broken when the connector is mated, and that the contact interface is no longer oxidized during the validity period of the electrical connector. Re-oxidation corrosion, in wear corrosion, is the main performance degradation mechanism of tin contact coating. The silver contact coating is best treated as a normal metal coating because the coating is susceptible to corrosion by sulfides and chlorides. Nickel plating is also generally regarded as a common metal due to the formation of valve warps.
Metal waterproof connector is a new type of connector that can operate well in various environments such as high temperature, high humidity, high vibration and high shock, while plastic connectors do not have these characteristics. Next, let me introduce you to the difference between metal and plastic connectors for waterproof connectors.
Metal waterproof connector is a new type of waterproof connector that can maintain regular operation under high temperature, high vibration, high impact and high humidity. Ordinary plastic connectors do not have these functions, so the specific waterproof connectors are different from ordinary plastic connectors in the following aspects:
1. Mechanical life: The mechanical life of a waterproof connector refers to the number of insertion and removal life, which is usually specified by industry standards as 500 to 1000 times. When the specified mechanical life is reached, the contact resistance, insulation resistance and withstand voltage of the waterproof connector should not exceed the specified standard values, which are not much different from the plastic housing.
2. Electrical properties: rated voltage, rated current, contact resistance, insulation resistance, etc. are in accordance with the specified standard values, this metal is the same as the plastic shell.
3. Environmental parameters: Environmental parameters mainly include ambient temperature, humidity, temperature change, atmospheric pressure and corrosive environment. The environment in which a waterproof connector is used during storage and transportation has a significant impact on its performance. Therefore, it is best to choose the corresponding metal casing according to the actual environmental conditions.
4. Termination method: The termination method refers to the connection method between the male and female connectors of the waterproof connector and the hardware contact part of the wire and cable. Metal is the same as plastic housing. Comprehensive analysis, except for the need for shielded joints, the performance of metal and nylon TA66 plastic housings is not much different. Plastic is cheaper than a metal case and has a more reasonable construction.
Comprehensive analysis, in addition to the need for the shielding function of the connector, the performance of the metal and plastic shells is not very different in all aspects. Compared with metal shell, plastic has lower cost and more reasonable structure.
The function of the aviation connector plug is to connect various devices. The working voltage of the aviation plug is required to be below 12 volts. The aviation plug can maintain a continuous working current due to its layout advantages, and the current passing through is very small.
1. Do not disassemble and assemble the aviation connector plug in a live state, otherwise it will cause danger due to sparks, or lead to poor performance;
2. Condensation or getting wet by water may cause poor insulation between circuits. If condensation or exposure to water is possible, take appropriate anti-drip measures;
3. When using, please do not branch the current above the rated value into multiple circuits to energize;
4. When using the aviation connector plug row, if the terminal connection part (connection part) always moves due to the resonance of the wires installed on the terminal, the resonance of the printed wiring board, or the movement of the rotating structure of the equipment and the movable part, There is a possibility of poor contact due to sliding wear of the contact part.
The connectors selected in different application environments are also very different. They are usually divided into two types: plastic connectors and metal connectors. In order to ensure the selection of suitable connectors, it is very important to know some advantages and disadvantages between connectors. . When we choose a connector every day, what we need to know is the type of connector we need, and the second is to know whether the properties of the connector meet our requirements. This article will introduce the advantages and disadvantages of plastic connectors and metal connectors. I hope it will be helpful to you after reading this article.
Advantages of plastic connectors:
1. Plastic connectors have more custom design options.
2. Plastic connectors have better ergonomics.
3. Plastic connectors are more flexible.
4. Plastic connectors are lighter than metal.
5. Lower cost per plastic connector.
6. The quick connection of the plastic connector provides easy service and maintenance.
7. Plastic connectors can be color-coded for easy identification.
Disadvantages of plastic connectors:
1. Not all types of plastic connectors are suitable for laboratory/industrial use.
2. Plastic connectors can crack/break faster than metal.
3. Long-term exposure to high temperatures or direct sunlight may render the plastic of some types of connectors useless, causing cracks and deterioration.
The circular aviation plug connector is a part that our electronic engineering technicians often touch. Its function is very simple: it sets up a bridge of communication between the blocked or isolated circuits in the circuit, so that the current flows and the circuit achieves the predetermined function.
The shapes of aviation plugs are ever-changing. Users mainly choose from straight, curved, outer diameter of wires or cables, requirements for fixing with the shell, volume weight, whether to connect metal hoses, etc. The plug should also be selected from the aspects of appearance, shape, color and so on. Here we introduce the advantages of circular aviation plugs:
1. Improve the production process
Connectors simplify the assembly process of electronic products. Also simplifies the mass production process;
2. Easy to maintain
If an electronic component fails, the failed component can be quickly replaced when the connector is installed;
3. Easy to upgrade
As technology advances, components can be updated when connectors are installed, replacing old ones with new, more complete components;
4. Improve design flexibility
Using connectors gives engineers greater flexibility when designing and integrating new products and when building systems from components.
A single-core coaxial connector is usually regarded as a component attached to a cable or installed on an instrument. As a component for electrical connection or separation of a transmission line, it belongs to an electromechanical product. The single-core coaxial connector has the following characteristics:
1. Small size, quick-plug self-locking system, easy to install;
2. There are different types of plugs such as straight type, 90-degree angle type, etc.;
3. High frequency, the transmission frequency is 3-30MHZ;
4. Multiple functions, in addition to acting as a bridge, it also has functions such as signal processing, such as filtering, frequency mixing, detection, amplitude limiting, etc.;
5. Low standing wave and low loss, meeting the needs of weapon systems and precise measurement;
6. Great ease and high power, mainly adapted to the development needs of the information superhighway;
The quick-plug self-locking connector can effectively resist vibration, shock, and prevent disconnection caused by pulling the cable. It is safe and reliable to use, plugs and unplugs in a limited space, and is quick and easy to operate.
1. The self-locking system is easy to operate, just simply push the plug axially into the socket to lock;
2. Once locked, it can only be opened with the unlocking device, otherwise pulling the cable or any other part will not disconnect the connection;
3. The opening operation is also simple, just pull the unlocking device along the axial direction, the locking pin will be unlocked first, and then the plug will be withdrawn;
1. According to the frequency, there are high-frequency aviation plugs and low-frequency aviation plugs;
2. According to the shape, it can be divided into circular connectors;
3. According to the use, it is divided into aviation plugs for cabinets, aviation plugs for audio equipment, power aviation plugs, special-purpose aviation plugs, etc.
Aviation plugs are generally interchangeable. In actual use, it can be selected according to the live condition of both ends of the plug and socket. If the socket needs to be constantly charged, you can choose a socket with a jack, so that the human body is not easy to touch and is relatively safe.
The shapes of aviation plugs are ever-changing. Users mainly choose from straight, curved, outer diameter of wires or cables, requirements for fixing with the shell, volume weight, whether to connect metal hoses, etc. The plug should also be selected from the aspects of appearance, shape, color and so on.
Connectors are an important part of medical equipment. Advances in medical technology have created huge expectations for connectors. The most important requirements for medical connectors are safety, reliability, form factor and speed.
1. Medical equipment
1. Medical imaging equipment.
Focus on the development of high-field-strength superconducting magnetic resonance imaging systems and specialized superconducting magnetic resonance imaging systems, high-end CT equipment, multimodal fusion molecular imaging equipment PET-CT and PET-MRI, high-end color Doppler ultrasound and intravascular ultrasound, and digital blood vessels Subtraction X-ray machine (DSA), high-definition electronic endoscope, etc.
Improve the production level of core components, focusing on CT tubes, magnetic resonance superconducting magnets and radio frequency coils, PET crystal detectors, ultrasonic single crystal probes, two-dimensional area array probes and other new probes, X-ray flat panel detectors, and endoscopes Chip camera system, etc.
2. In vitro diagnostic products.
Focus on the development of high-throughput biochemical analyzers, immune analyzers, blood cell analyzers, fully automated laboratory testing and analysis lines (TLA) and related reagents, single-molecule gene sequencers and other molecular diagnostic instruments, and new point-of-care testing equipment (POCT) .
Strengthen the integration and innovation of in vitro diagnostic equipment, testing reagents, information management software and data analysis systems, and speed up the establishment of testing reagent standards, the development of traceability reference materials and the development of new reagents.
3. Treatment equipment.
Focus on the development of high-energy linear accelerators and image-guided radiation therapy devices, orthopedic and laparoscopic surgical robots, hemodialysis equipment and consumables, artificial liver blood purification equipment and consumables, ophthalmic laser therapy systems, high-end therapeutic ventilators, mobile ICU emergency systems, defibrillation Instruments, Chinese medicine treatment equipment, etc.
4. Implant interventional products and medical materials.
Focus on the development of fully degradable coronary stents, heart valves, degradable occluders, reusable catheters for interventional therapy devices, artificial joints and spines, 3D printed orthopaedic implants, tissue and organ induced regeneration and repair materials, and pacemakers , Implantable left ventricular assist devices, brain pacemakers, cochlear implants, dental implants, ophthalmic intraocular lenses, functional dressings, degradable rapid hemostatic materials and medical adhesives, etc.
5. Mobile medical products.
Develop and apply health and medical big data, focusing on the development of telemedicine systems, wearable physiological information monitoring equipment, household, elderly care, and rehabilitation equipment with cloud services and artificial intelligence functions, which can provide health consultation, online appointment and triage, case follow-up, and test results Health management information system for applications such as query.
Develop core general components such as new electrophysiological sensors, flexible display devices, and high-performance batteries used in wearable medical devices.
The most effective and simple way to distinguish between aviation plugs and aviation sockets: aviation plugs are generally also called male ends and male sockets, which are male; aviation sockets are generally also called female ends and female sockets, which are female.
Aviation plugs are used for insertion. It operates automatically and can be plugged in. Of course, it can be pulled out. The aviation socket type is for insertion, generally not fixed there, on the case or circuit board; it lies there and waits for the aviation plug to be inserted.
Aviation plugs are also called military plugs, that is, connectors, that is, cable connectors. The number of cores is different, and the size is variable. But basically they are metal casings with turnbuckles for the plugs and sockets. Once attached, they can be fastened and held in place without falling off.
It is used on airplanes and named. It is widely used in navigation, aerospace, electric power and other fields. The housing material is usually made of strong and durable magnesium-aluminum alloy. Receptacles and plugs are complementary, the main difference being that one is male and the other is female.
Aviation sockets are called aviation plugs, connectors, connectors, aviation plugs, etc. Their main function is to connect easily, mainly for transmitting signals and connecting power. The connection methods include push-pull self-locking and threaded screw connections. The protection levels are IP IP IP IP7 IP8 IP9. The higher the protection level, the better the waterproof performance. It is generally used in various communication equipment and instruments.
1. They have different degrees of freedom
Aviation plugs are flexible for insertion and extraction.
The aviation socket is fixed and used to insert and pull out the aviation plug.
2. Their ports are different
Aviation plugs are male.
Aviation sockets are female.
Aviation plugs are also called military plugs, which are connectors, that is, cable connectors, with varying numbers of cores and various sizes.
But they are basically metal shells, and the plugs and sockets have turnbuckles. After connecting, they can be screwed and fixed without falling off.
Named for its use on airplanes. Now it is widely used in navigation, aerospace, electric power and other fields. The shell material is often made of magnesium aluminum alloy, which is sturdy and durable.
Circular connectors are an indispensable part of electronic equipment. They are widely used in both life and industrial production. It can be said that without circular connectors, there will be no colorful modern life.
The main function of the circular connector is to build a bridge of communication between the blocked or isolated circuits in the circuit, so that the current flows and the circuit achieves the predetermined function. The circular connector greatly facilitates the assembly of the product, and can also bring benefits and convenience to people during various repairs and replacements. Therefore, although we rarely see circular connectors with the naked eye, we are often served by circular connectors.
The materials for making circular connectors generally include materials that can be insulated such as plastics, as well as some conductor materials, such as phosphor bronze or brass. Of course, this part can also be made of some plastic materials. The quality of the products made of different materials is also different, and each has its own characteristics. Therefore, when we choose circular connectors with different uses, we must choose the appropriate products according to the specific situation.
There are many reasons for the poor contact of circular connectors, such as low strength, easy deformation, bending and wear of contact pins, or high strength and easy breakage. Of course, the contact jacks have low strength, low hardness, poor elasticity, stress relaxation, small separation force, high strength and breakage, and hyperbolic spring hole broken wires will also lead to poor contact of the circular connector. In addition to the above performance reasons for the contact parts, the failure of elastic parts will also lead to poor contact. Because of low strength, hardness or low stiffness, the reed or spring will be permanently deformed. If the strength is too high, and the stiffness is too high, the wrist break will also affect the elastic parts. normal function.
Circular connectors must have the following three properties.
1. Insulation resistance
Insulation resistance refers to the resistance value exhibited by applying voltage to the insulating part of the cable circular connector, so that leakage current occurs in or on the surface of the insulating part. It is mainly affected by factors such as insulation material, temperature, humidity, contamination and so on. The insulation resistance value provided on the cable circular connector sample is generally the index value under standard atmospheric conditions. Under certain environmental conditions, the insulation resistance value will decrease to an unnecessary degree. In addition, pay attention to the test voltage value of the insulation resistance. According to the insulation resistance (MΩ) = applied to the insulator voltage (V) / leakage current (μA) to apply different voltages, there are different results. In the test of the cable circular connector, the applied voltage generally has three grades: 10V, 100V and 500V.
2. Pressure resistance
The withstand voltage is the critical voltage that can withstand higher than the rated voltage within a specified period of time between the mutually insulating parts of the contact pair or between the insulating part and the ground without causing breakdown. It is mainly affected by contact pair spacing and creepage distance and geometry, insulator material as well as ambient temperature and humidity, atmospheric pressure.
3. Burn resistance
Any cable circular connector is inseparable from the current when working, which has the risk of fire. Therefore, the cable circular connector is required not only to prevent ignition, but also to self-extinguish within a short period of time once ignition and fire occur. When selecting, pay attention to choosing a circular cable connector with flame-retardant, self-extinguishing insulating material.
Environmental premise is often an important indicator for overhauling the quality of an object, because the technical function of a unified object in different environments will also change. Aviation plugs are often used in different environments. In order to ensure that the performance is not disordered and meet the needs of application in various complex and harsh environments, its environmental performance is very important.
Temperature, humidity, acid and alkali, vibration and shock, liquid immersion, etc. will have a great impact on the function and service life of aviation plugs. Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses the degree of coldness and heat of an object. The ambient temperature is different in different seasons and regions. It can change the physical state of the object, which will have a great impact on the efficiency of the aviation plug. In order to ensure the high performance of the connector, its internal metal components are required to keep the physical state unchanged within a certain temperature, so the temperature range required for it to withstand is -60 degrees to 200 degrees. After the two components are connected, the current will generate heat and the temperature will rise. This is the working temperature. Generally, the working temperature and the ambient temperature are added within the range of 200 degrees, which is an acceptable temperature range.
Humidity is a physical quantity that expresses the degree of dryness of the atmosphere. Water will be corrosive to metal components, and it also has a certain degree of conductivity, which can reduce insulation. At a certain temperature in a certain volume of air, the higher the humidity, the more water vapor in the air, which will affect the function of the connector. Therefore, the component material of the connector must be selected with the least influence of water, and the connector must be able to work normally for at least 96 hours at a temperature of about 40 degrees and a relative humidity of 90%-95%.
Salt spray refers to a dispersion system composed of salt-containing tiny droplets in the atmosphere. When the temperature is 35 °C and the salt concentration is 3%, it will cause great erosion to objects, especially metal components, which will Affect the electrical function of the aviation plug. In order to avoid affecting its electrical function in a salt spray environment, it is required to work continuously for at least 48 hours in a salt spray environment artificially made by a specific sodium chloride solution.
Vibration and shock often affect the electrical contact reliability and robustness of the connector. Usually, during the production process, the vibration and shock environment is simulated according to the relevant parameters to check its performance and improve the electrical performance.
Liquid immersion is to immerse the object in the liquid, the nearby moisture is relatively large, and the action time is relatively short, but this method is the best and most commonly used method for overhauling the sealing of the object.
In order to ensure the reliability of the function of the aviation plug and maintain the current continuity of the connected components, the appropriate shape and structure are usually selected and applied to the appropriate electronic equipment according to different application objects and application environments, but they must meet different environmental conditions. electrical performance requirements.